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Full text of "History Of Ancient India"

{\rtf1\ansi {\colortbl;\red0\green0\blue0;\red0\green0\blue255;\red0\green255\blue255;\red0\green255\blue0;\red255\green0\blue255;\red255\green0\blue0;\red255\green255\blue0;\red255\green255\blue255;}{\fonttbl{\f0\froman\cpg0\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f1\froman\cpg1252\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f2\froman\cpg1251\fcharset204 Times New Roman;}{\f3\froman\cpg1250\fcharset238 Times New Roman;}{\f4\froman\cpg1257\fcharset186 Times New Roman;}{\f5\froman\cpg1254\fcharset162 Times New Roman;}{\f6\froman\cpg1253\fcharset161 Times New Roman;}{\f7\froman\cpg1255\fcharset177 Times New Roman;}}{\stylesheet {\sbasedon222\f1\fs20 Normal;}}\paperw12240\paperh15840\margl2752\margr3872\margt1440\margb720 \sectd \sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn2752\margrsxn3872\margtsxn1440\margbsxn720\cols1\colsx60 \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li26\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i\cf1\charscalex87\expndtw2\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs25 Trade and Trade-Routes}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li0\fi432\ri10\sb168\sa0\sl-240\slmult0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw5\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 In those days trade, both Inland and foreign, was \expndtw7 fairly brisk. Merchants made fortunes by dealing in \expndtw0 articles like silks., muslins, cutlery, armour, brocades, \expndtw11 embroideries, rugs, perfumes, drugs, ivory, ivory-\expndtw3 work, jewellery, etc. They went long distances up and \expndtw5 down the great rivers of the country, and even under\-\expndtw7 took coasting voyages to Burma and Ceylon from \expndtw1 Tamralipti (Tamluk) on the east, and from Bharukaccha \expndtw8 (Broach) on the west. There are also references to \expndtw0 voyages as far as Baveru (Babylon). Inland, the traders \expndtw9 followed certain well-established routes, connecting \expndtw12 the various parts of India. One of them ran from \expndtw2 Savatthi (Stavasti) to Patitthana or Pratisthana (modern \expndtw8 Paithan in the Nizam's dominions); another linked \expndtw6 Savatthi with Rajagaha; a third skirted along the base \expndtw2 of the mountains from Taxila to Sravasti; and a fourth \expndtw8 connected KasI with the ports of the western coast.\super 1 \nosupersub\expndtw0 In crossing the desert of Rajputana the caravans w^ere \expndtw16 guided in the cool of nights by stars under the \expndtw10 direction of 'land-pilots.\super 5\nosupersub  Brigands infested these \expndtw1 routes, especially the less frequented ones, and looted \expndtw11 merchandise when they could safely do so. Such \expndtw6 dangers, coupled with the taxes and octroi duties paid \expndtw7 in each state that was crossed, must have raised the \expndtw3 prices of commodities very high.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li46\fi0\ri0\sb202\sa0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i\cf1\charscalex78\expndtw0\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs25 Money}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li41\fi434\ri12\sb113\sa0\sl-242\slmult0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw5\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 The age of barter was almost drawing to a close. \expndtw3 Now the ordinary medium of exchange or transactions \expndtw-5 was a coin called \i Kahdpana (Kdrsdpana). \i0 It was of copper, \expndtw9 146 grains in weight, and marks were punched on it \expndtw6 by merchants or guilds, guaranteeing its standard and}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li36\fi360\ri0\sb242\sa0\sl-204\slmult0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-1\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs21 1\nosupersub  These long routes had several intermediate halts, and there \expndtw1 were ferries on the way for crossing rivers*}\par }